The site of Ancient Corinth was first settled at the end of the 5th millennium B.C. and thanks to its advantageous geographical situation and its two harbours – Lechaion on the east and Kehreai on the south, it became one of the richest cities of prehistoric times.
As the myths of history begin to dissolve, the first recorded king of Corinth was Aletes, leader of the Dorians, who occupied the area in around 1000-900B.C.
In the 8th century B.C. the Bacchiad tyrants of Corinth founded colonies in Corcyra (Corfu) and Syracuse, making their home city the greatest Greek naval power.
Fresh impetus to the development of the city was given by the Cypselid dynasty (Cypselus, Periander ).Shipping, trading and fine arts flourished and many important buildings were constructed.In 580 B.C.Sparta overthrew the tyranny of Corinth and established an aristocratic system of government.
Thus, Corinth became associated with Sparta and its Peloponnesian allies and challenged Athens for supremacy in Greece. However, during the 6th and 5th centuries B.C.Athens increased its power and overshadowed Corinth. Not long after the Peloponnesian War in which Athens was defeated, Corinth turned to its former ally and, with other Greek cities, attacked Sparta – ( the Corinthian War , 395-387 B.C.)
In 338 B.C.it joined the Achaean Confederation.Leucius Mommius sacked Corinth in 146 B.C.but Julius Caesar rebuilt it in 44 B.C.During the 1st century A.D., Corinth was the capital of the Roman province of Achaea and, by the 2nd century its superb buildings had helped to give it back much of the grandeur it had enjoyed in previous times. From Byzantine times and on, Corinth attracted the attention of many invaders; Heruli, Goths, Normans, Crusaders, Franks, Venetians and finally, the Turkish.
The liberation from the Turkish was gained in 1822, but in 1858 a devastating earthquake destroyed Corinth and the survivors built the modern town ( New Corinth).
The archaeological site is not far from town. Among its features, there are ancient ruins of the Roman forum with unique buildings, temple E ( the Temple of Octavia ), a row of small roman temples, the sole Doric Temple of Apollo ( 540 B.C.), the Temple of Hera Acraea and the Glauce Fountain, numerous shops and arcades, basilicas dated back to the roman era, the elaborate Peirene fountain, the Odeion and the Asklepieion.
Within the area, there is also a museum with marvelous exhibits that reflect the long, glorious Corinthian history.